If you used complex machinery or computer programs in the course of your experiment, to avoid breaking the flow of your report, you should give only the main information and refer to the exact technical specifications in the appendix.
These should be a quick synopsis of the facts, figures and statistical tests used to arrive at your final results. You should try to avoid cluttering up your report and insert most of your raw data into the appendix. It is far better to stick with including only tables and graphs that show clearly the results.
Do not be tempted to insert large numbers of graphs and figures just for the sake of it; each figure and graph should be mentioned, referred to and discussed in the text. Try to avoid putting in tables and graphs showing the same information; select the type that shows your results most clearly.
It is usually preferable to use graphs and relegate the tables to the appendix because it is easier to show trends in graphical format. Figures and graphs should be clear and occupy at least half a page; you are not a magazine editor trying to fit a small graph into an article. All such information must be numbered, as diagrams for graphs and illustrations, and figures for tables; they should be referred to by this number in the body of the report.
You do not need to put the full breakdown of the calculations used for your statistical tests; most scientists hate statistics and are only interested in whether your results were significant or not. Relegate the calculations to the appendix. The results section of your report should be neutral and you should avoid discussing your results or how they differed from or compared with what was expected.
This information belongs in the next section. This is the pivotal section of your hard work in obtaining and analyzing your results. In your discussion you should seek to discuss your findings, and describe how they compared and differed from the results you expected. In a nutshell, you are trying to show whether your hypothesis was proved, not proved or inconclusive. You must be extremely critical of yourself in this section; you will not get marked down for mistakes in experiment design or for poor results, only for not recognizing them.
Everybody who has written a dissertation or thesis has had to give a presentation to a room full of fellow students, scientists and professors and give a quick synopsis.
These people will tear your report apart if you do not recognize its shortcomings and flaws. Very few experiments are per cent correct in their design and conception so it is not really important what your results were, only that you understand their significance. Usually you will have had some promising results and some that did not fit with what you expected. Discuss why things may have gone wrong and what could be done to refine the results in future. Suggest what changes in experimental design might improve the results; there is no right or wrong in science, only progress.
Finally, you can discuss at the end ideas for further research, either refining the experiment or suggesting new areas. Even if your paper was a one off, somebody may come along and decide that they find your research interesting and that they would like to continue from where you left off. This is really just a more elaborate version of the abstract. In a few paragraphs you should summarize your findings. Your abstract will do most of this for you but, as long as you do not get carried away, especially for longer reports, it can help the reader absorb your findings a little more.
Include all of your direct references here, even if you only found a couple of sentences. In the case where somebody referred to an original source, reference that too, but if you did not manage to get hold of it, try to rewrite so that you will not have to reference or use "referred in"-citation. Here it is polite to acknowledge anybody who helped you with this report, although do not go overboard; it is not an Oscar speech. Your supervisor is a good start, as well as others who helped.
If a landowner gave you permission to take samples then it is good practice to acknowledge them and give them a summary of your results, if permitted. Appendices are very useful because they give you a place to dump raw data and calculations.
They must still be laid out correctly; the data must be relevant and referred to in the main report. If you have a lot of relevant photographs of sample sites and methods then they belong here.
It is also useful to insert a Google map plan to show from where you took samples. Hopefully this will have given you a good oversight into writing that perfect report. It is not as daunting as it seems and if you do your research and listen to your supervisor then all should be well and you can get a good grade. Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. Martyn Shuttleworth Mar 14, Retrieved Sep 10, from Explorable.
The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. Learn how to construct, style and format an Academic paper and take your skills to the next level.
No problem, save it as a course and come back to it later. Share this page on your website: This article is a part of the guide: Select from one of the other courses available: Check out our quiz-page with tests about: One trick to simplifying the writing process is knowing how to create an outline for a research paper.
If you can begin writing an outline, the task of drafting the research paper will quickly become more manageable. Like most large projects, writing a research paper can be accomplished by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable tasks.
Think about writing your research paper in steps:. Once you have gathered all of your data, the next step is to create a rough draft of your research paper. This process can be made easier if you start with writing the research paper outline. The process of writing an outline for your research paper is explained in The Research Project: How to Write It by Ralph Berry. Order must be imposed upon chaos, and it is at this precise point that the forces of chaos and order meet.
Some two or three hours of uninterrupted thought should be set aside to consider the matter; it is not to be tackled in a stray half-hour; once the material has been set into a form, the mould will be hard to break and harder to alter. You should explain what type of research or report it is, for instance, whether it is based on actual facts, or is it a book review, a comparison, or an analysis of a problem. The body of your research paper is where you develop your topic and the arguments that support your thesis statement.
Here again, the task can be made easier by breaking the process down into more manageable steps. Start with a strong argument, followed by a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument as your final point. The best choice for the overall organization of your outline depends on the subject of your research paper.
If your topic is related to a historic event or you are writing about a process that takes place in a series of steps, then a chronological approach might work best. In a chronological outline, the body of the outline will progress from one event to the next. If your topic does not lend itself to a chronological approach, then a spatial approach might work best. In a spatial approach, the first item in the body of your outline will be a general statement related to your thesis.
Then, each additional point in your outline body will become less general and more specific. There are several possible patterns that you can use to structure the presentation of information in your outline and in your paper.
You can find several examples at Washington. Writing a research paper does not have to be a struggle. You can do a great job of writing your next paper if you learn how to do it step-by-step. Thanks for your informing and educating works. You will get more information about research paper outline. Its like chillin my bones man…. Is there any other specific information we can help you find regarding your research paper outline?
I need it in 5 days. I think we can all agree that completing an outline for a research paper is one of the toughest things to do! You might also think about narrowing the subject down so that you concentrate on violence in the US, violence against women, or children.
Also concentrate on a particular time period, for example, the past five or ten years. Questia has over books and articles on the topic of violence in society.
This is why you should establish early on the scope and limitations of your paper which will provide the foundation for your research paper outline. Basically, your outline will constitute three main sections: the Introduction, the Body and the Conclusion.
Learning how to write a research paper outline is a more complex process. The article covers its main elements and provides valuable examples. What is an Outline for a Research Paper? Research Paper Outline Help is Close.
Student Guide: Writing a Research Paper Outline. Hire a writer to help you come up with writing a research paper conclusion! Order Now. By clicking “Order now”, Wish you an academic success with our guide to the research paper writing! Tweet: Order your paper . An outline will help you organize your main ideas and determine the order in which you are going to write about them. Writing an outline is a very effective way to think through how you will organize and present the information in your essay.
How to Craft a Research Paper Outline. but some of that time is going to be spent trying to figure out how to write that large of a paper. Research papers can be pretty scary at first, but there is a secret weapon that can help you overcome some of that fear–The Outline. An outline is a “blueprint” or “plan” for your paper. It helps you to organize your thoughts and arguments. A good outline can make conducting research and then writing the paper very efficient.