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❶In these communities, collaboration is emphasized, and learners are trusted to take initiative. Journalist Evan Rosen claims that command-and-control organizational structures inhibit collaboration and replacing such structures allows collaboration to flourish.

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This helps knowledge be constructed and shared, instead of just passed down by authorities and passively consumed or ignored. Technologies such as discussion threads, email or electronic bulletin boards by sharing personal knowledge and ideas do not let others refine individual ideas so we need more collaborative tools. Now these tools on Web 2. These tools allow for them to find people that are like minded and collaborate with them effortlessly.

The goal was to examine corporate personnel, including learning managers and instructors, plus the tools that they use for collaboration.

The researchers conducted an online survey to see what aspects of collaborative learning should be investigated, followed by an open discussion forum with 30 corporate personnel. The results showed that collaboration is becoming very necessary in workplaces and tools such as wikis are very commonly used. There is implication for a lot of future work, in order to have collaborative learning be highly effective in the workplace. Some of the unsolved problems they identified:.

It is crucial to consider the interactive processes among people, but the most critical point is the construction of new knowledge brought about through joint work. Technology has become an important factor in collaborative learning. Over the past ten years, the Internet has allowed for a shared space for groups to communicate. Virtual environments have been critical to allowing people to communicate long-distances but still feel like they are part of the group.

Research has been conducted on how technology has helped increase the potential of collaborative learning. One study in particular conducted by Elizabeth Stacey looked at how technology affected the communication of postgraduate students studying a Master of Business Administration MBA using computer-mediated communication CMC.

Many of these students were able to still remotely learn even when they were not present on their university campus. The results of the study helped build an online learning environment model but since this research was conducted the Internet has grown extensively and thus new software is changing these means of communication. There has been a development of new technology that support collaborative learning in higher education and the workplace. These tools allow for a strong more power and engaging learning environment.

Chickering identified seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education developed by Chickering. Learners share a common purpose, depend upon each other and are accountable to each other for their success. CNL occurs in interactive groups in which participants actively communicate and negotiate learning with one another within a contextual framework which may be facilitated by an online coach, mentor or group leader.

Computer-supported collaborative learning CSCL is a relatively new educational paradigm within collaborative learning which uses technology in a learning environment to help mediate and support group interactions in a collaborative learning context. Collaborative learning using Wikipedia: Wikipedia is an example of how collaborative learning tools have been extremely beneficial in both the classroom and workplace setting. They are able to change based on how groups think and are able to form into a coherent idea based on the needs of the Wikipedia user.

Collaborative learning in virtual worlds by their nature provide an excellent opportunity for collaborative learning. At first learning in virtual worlds was restricted to classroom meetings and lectures, similar to their counterparts in real life.

Now collaborative learning is evolving as companies starting to take advantage of unique features offered by virtual world spaces - such as ability to record and map the flow of ideas, [17] use 3D models and virtual worlds mind mapping tools. There also exists cultural variations in ways of collaborative learning. Research in this area has mainly focused on children in indigenous Mayan communities of the Americas or in San Pedro, Guatemala and European American middle-class communities.

Generally, researchers have found that children in indigenous Mayan communities such as San Pedro typically learn through keenly observing and actively contributing to the mature activities of their community. Research has found that even when Indigenous Mayan children are in a classroom setting, the cultural orientation of indigenous learners shows that observation is a preferred strategy of learning. Within the European American middle-class communities, children typically do not learn through collaborative learning methods.

In the classroom, these children generally learn by engaging in initiation-reply-evaluation sequences. Although learning happens in a variety of ways in indigenous communities, collaborative learning is one of the main methods used in indigenous learning styles instead of using European-American approaches to learning.

These methods include learning in a horizontal plane where children and adults equally contribute to ideas and activities. Mayan mothers do not act as teachers when completing a task with their children, but instead collaborate with children through play and other activities.

In Nocutzepo, Mexico, indigenous heritage families form collective units where it is generally agreed that children and youth engage in adult cooperative household or community economic practices such as food preparation, child care, participating in markets, agriculture, animal herding, and construction to name a few.

Indigenous people of the Americas utilize collaborative learning through their emphasis on role sharing and responsibility sharing within their communities. The Mayan community of San Pedro, Guatemala utilizes flexible leadership that allows children to have an active role in their learning.

Participation of learner is a key component to collaborative learning as it functions as the method by which the learning process occurs. Thus collaborative learning occurs when children and adults in communities switch between "knowledge performers" and "observing helpers". Adults and children in indigenous communities of the Americas participate in a horizontal organizational structure; therefore when they work together with one another they are reciprocals of each other.

The indigenous communities of the Americas are unique in their collaborative learning because they do not discriminate upon age, instead Indigenous communities of the Americas encourage active participation and flexible leadership roles, regardless of age. Children and adults regularly interchange their roles within their community. In addition, Indigenous communities consider observation to be a part of the collaborative learning process.

Collaborative learning can also be incorporated into university settings. For example, the Intercultural Maya University of Quintana Roo , Mexico , has a system that incorporates elders, such as grandparents to act as tutors and as a resource for students to discuss information and knowledge regarding their own language and culture. The system is called IKNAL, a mayan word that implies companionship in the learning and doing process that involves several members of the community.

Collaborative learning varies across the world. The traditional model for learning is instructor based but that model is quickly changing on a global standpoint as countries fight to be at the top of the economy.

Collaborative learning is also employed in the business and government sectors. CLA involves three concepts: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cognitive and Computational Approaches.

Advances in Learning and Instruction Series. Group problem solving processes: Social interactions and individual actions. A statistical discourse analysis. Journal of the Learning Sciences , 17 3 , - A Graph Teaching Experience".

Dynamic multi-level analysis" PDF. Adapting teacher interventions to student needs during cooperative learning. American Educational Research Journal, 41, An introduction to collaborative learning. Freeman and Company, New York. Journal of Technology Education. The evolution of research on Collaborative Learning.

A meta-analysis of the effects of face-to-face cooperative learning. Do recent studies falsify or verify earlier findings? A Review of Research". Verzella, Massimo, and Andrew Mara. Methods, Theories, and Trends. Ying Cui and Wei Zhao. Mousten, Birthe, and Gunta Locele. From Mirroring to Missing the Point!

Verzella, Massimo, and Laura Tommaso. Studies in Culture and Education 21 Hammer, Steven, and Bruce Maylath. Practices Integrating Social Media and Globalization. Marohang Limbu and Binod Gurung. International Professional Communication Journal 1. International Interactions in Online Environments. Amant and Sigrid Kelsey. Bridging the Gap between Professions.

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"Why write together?" the authors ask. They answer that question here, in the first book to combine theoretical and historical explorations with actual research on collaborative and group writing. Transforming media into collaborative spaces with video, voice, and text commenting.